S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 1, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   46-5543980

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 714-4096

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

J. Jeffrey Goater

Chief Executive Officer

Surface Oncology, Inc.

50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor

Cambridge Massachusetts 02139

(617) 714-4096

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Kingsley L. Taft, Esq.

Seo Salimi, Esq.

Goodwin Procter LLP

100 Northern Avenue

Boston, Massachusetts 02210

(617) 570-1000

 

 

From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement

(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)

 

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 


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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(3)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(4)

Common Stock(5)

               

Preferred Stock(6)

               

Debt Securities(7)

               

Warrants(8)

               

Units(9)

               

Total

  $180,000,000   N/A   $180,000,000   $21,816

 

 

 

(1)

The amount to be registered consists of up to $180,000,000 of an indeterminate amount of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units. There is also being registered hereunder such currently indeterminate number of (i) shares of common stock or other securities of the registrant as may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) shares of preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units as may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with the other securities registered hereunder.

(2)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

(3)

Estimated solely for purposes of computing the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for (i) common stock or other securities of the registrant that may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units that may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(4)

The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(5)

Including such indeterminate amount of common stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(6)

Including such indeterminate amount of preferred stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(7)

Including such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(8)

Including such indeterminate number of warrants or other rights, including without limitation share purchase or subscription rights, as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices.

(9)

Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in two or more securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $180,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $30,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $30,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $180,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus.

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MAY 1, 2019

PROSPECTUS

$180,000,0000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $180,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “SURF.” On April 29, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $4.79 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

We may sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time, or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus as described on page 8 of this prospectus.

 

 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2019.


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Table of Contents

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SUMMARY

     2  

THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

     7  

RISK FACTORS

     8  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     9  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     25  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     31  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     31  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $180,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus, the terms “Surface Oncology,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Surface Oncology, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary. We use Surface Oncology and the Surface Oncology logo as trademarks in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company focused on using our specialized knowledge of the biological pathways critical to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, or the TME, for the development of next-generation cancer therapies. While first-generation immuno-oncology therapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, are a remarkable therapeutic advancement, we believe most patients do not achieve durable clinical benefit primarily because these therapies focus on only one element of the complex and interconnected immunosuppressive TME. We believe there is a significant opportunity to more broadly engage both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in a multi-faceted, coordinated and patient-specific approach, to meaningfully improve cure rates for patients with a variety of cancers. We aim to identify key components within the TME to gain a deep understanding of its biology, leverage this understanding to define the optimal therapeutic targets and the patients most likely to benefit, and develop novel antibody therapeutics with differentiated biologic activity. By utilizing our expertise in immunology, oncology, assay development, antibody selection and characterization, and translational research, we are developing and advancing a broad pipeline of TME-focused programs that we believe are the next generation of immuno-oncology therapies. Our programs demonstrate our multi-faceted approach by targeting several critical components of the immunosuppressive TME, including metabolites, cytokines and macrophages.

NZV930 (formerly SRF373) and SRF617 are antibodies inhibiting cluster of differentiation, or CD, 73 and CD39, respectively, and illustrate how our specialized knowledge of TME biology can be leveraged across programs. CD73 and CD39 are both critical enzymes involved in the production of extracellular adenosine, a key metabolite with strong immunosuppressive properties within the TME. Elevated adenosine levels in the TME are associated with a poor prognosis in patients with certain types of cancer. NZV930 and SRF617 each aim to reduce the production of immunosuppressive adenosine but target different points of the adenosine pathway. In addition to reducing the production of adenosine, we believe SRF617 will also stimulate anti-tumor immunity because of its ability to maintain levels of extracellular adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, a proinflammatory molecule and key driver of the maturation and activation of immune cells. In June 2018, a Phase 1 trial of NZV930 was initiated by our partner, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., or Novartis, and we expect to file an investigational new drug application, or IND, for SRF617 in the fourth quarter of 2019.

SRF388 is an antibody targeting interleukin 27, or IL-27, an immunosuppressive cytokine, or protein secreted by cells, in the TME that is overexpressed in certain cancers. IL-27 is a cytokine secreted by macrophages and antigen presenting cells that plays an important physiologic role in suppressing the immune



 

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system, as evidenced by its ability to resolve tissue inflammation. In addition, one of the subunits of IL-27, EBI3, is highly expressed during pregnancy and its expression is correlated with maternal-fetal tolerance. Due to its immunosuppressive nature, there is a rationale for inhibiting IL-27 to treat cancer, as this approach will influence the activity of multiple types of immune cells that are necessary to recognize and attack a tumor. We expect to file an IND for SRF388 in the fourth quarter of 2019.

SRF231 is an antibody targeting CD47, which is a protein expressed on many cells, but often overexpressed on tumor cells. By targeting CD47, we believe we can promote macrophage activation to attack such tumors. We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of SRF231 in February 2018. In December 2018, we announced the deprioritization of SRF231 as a result of toxicities seen during the dose escalation portion of the ongoing Phase 1 trial as well as the evolving competitive landscape. We are continuing dose exploration in the Phase 1 trial and expect to provide additional data regarding SRF231 in the second half of 2019.

We also have several earlier stage programs that target other critical components of the TME, including regulatory T cells and natural killer, or NK, cells. We expect that the unique insights generated in any one of our product programs will accelerate the development of the other programs in a synergistic fashion due to the interconnections between these TME pathways.

In 2016, we entered into a strategic collaboration agreement, or the Collaboration Agreement, with Novartis to develop next-generation cancer therapies. Importantly, this collaboration enables us to leverage the expertise and resources of Novartis to accelerate the development of our collaboration programs. To date, we have received upfront and milestone payments from Novartis totaling $150 million. We have granted Novartis a worldwide exclusive license to develop and commercialize NZV930. Under the Collaboration Agreement, we are currently entitled to potential milestones in excess of $500 million, as well as tiered royalties on annual net sales by Novartis ranging from high single-digit to mid-teens percentages upon successful commercialization of NZV930. Novartis has one option remaining eligible for purchase and potential exercise. The maximum aggregate amount of potential option purchase, option exercise, and milestone payments associated with this last program is $220 million.

We have assembled an outstanding team, including our world-class scientific advisory board. Our scientific founders and members of our management team have extensive experience in drug discovery and development and are leaders in the immuno-oncology field. Members of our leadership team have helped develop a number of commercialized therapies, including cancer treatments such as Avastin, Copiktra and Velcade. Our scientific advisory board is co-chaired by leading immuno-oncology researchers Alexander Y. Rudensky, Ph.D., a world leader in regulatory T cell biology, and Arlene H. Sharpe, M.D., Ph.D., who led pioneering work related to the ligands for PD-1, including the co-discovery of PD-L2, and has defined functions of the PD-1 pathway as well as other costimulatory and immune checkpoint molecules. Collectively, we believe our team, industry-leading capabilities and collaboration with Novartis, position us to build the leading TME company focused on developing next-generation immunotherapies for the tens of millions of cancer patients worldwide.

Our Strategy

Our mission is to create next-generation immuno-oncology therapies to help those affected by cancer. We strive to fulfill our mission by:

Avoiding incrementalism:

 

   

We live in an era of unparalleled scientific discovery where progress is moving faster than ever. Both the competitive landscape and our understanding of cancer biology are constantly evolving. To develop therapies that meaningfully benefit patients, we will be judicious in how we invest our time and resources. We identify and interrogate critical pathways and targets in the TME, allowing us to select



 

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and advance therapeutic candidates with differentiated biological activity. We prioritize novel programs with the potential to meaningfully help patients suffering with cancer.

Pioneering the translation of TME biology into cancer therapeutics:

 

   

The TME is a complex interplay of immunosuppressive biological pathways, molecules, cells and other components surrounding the tumor. To successfully advance a new wave of cancer immunotherapies, it is essential that we have a deep understanding of TME biology. Our team, together with our scientific advisory board, has unique expertise and capabilities within TME biology. For example:

 

   

In our work along the adenosine axis with our NZV930 (CD73) and SRF617 (CD39) programs, we were able to leverage our understanding of this biological pathway to identify two therapeutic candidates which offer differentiated profiles.

 

   

For our SRF388 (IL-27) program, we utilized our accumulated knowledge regarding IL-27 biology to identify what we believe to be the optimal therapeutic target within the pathway and to identify the relevant tumor types where IL-27 appears to play an important role.

 

   

We believe these product candidates have the potential to be first-in-class and/or best-in-class.

Emphasizing collaboration:

 

   

We believe in collaboration at all levels, both internally and externally. As we continue to build our own clinical and, in the future, commercial capabilities, we will seek to work with leaders from academia, biotech and large pharma to enable our mission. We do this not only to expand our learning and expedite our programs, but to maximize the value created for patients and our shareholders.



 

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Our Pipeline

We believe next-generation immuno-oncology therapies need to encompass a multi-faceted, coordinated and patient-specific approach to treating cancer in order to achieve meaningful increases in patient cure rates. We have developed a pipeline of multiple therapeutic programs to address the complexity of the TME, as shown in the table below.

 

LOGO

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2014. Our principal executive office is located at 50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 714-4096. Our website address is www.surfaceoncology.com. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In particular, in this prospectus, we have provided only two years of audited financial statements and have not included all of the executive compensation-related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.



 

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We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier to occur of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following April 23, 2023, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenues of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” under the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, which means the market value of our equity securities that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of delayed adoption of new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same requirements to adopt new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.



 

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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contain forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;

 

   

the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of Investigational New Drug application and Biological Licensing Application filings for, and final U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of our current product candidates and any other future product candidates;

 

   

the timing, scope or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals;

 

   

our ability to use our understanding of the tumor microenvironment to identify product candidates and to match immunotherapies to select patient subsets;

 

   

our ability to develop and advance our current product candidates and programs into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;

 

   

our ability to develop combination therapies, whether on our own or in collaboration with third parties;

 

   

our manufacturing, commercialization and marketing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

the pricing and reimbursement of our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop, if approved;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

the potential benefits of and our ability to maintain our collaboration with Novartis, and establish or maintain future collaborations or strategic relationships or obtain additional funding;

 

   

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

 

   

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop, the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;

 

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our competitive position, and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the proceeds from our initial public offering and the concurrent private placement;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing; and

 

   

the impact of laws and regulations.

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include, but are not limited to, research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following descriptions are summaries of the material terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. We refer in this section to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation as our certificate of incorporation, and we refer to our amended and restated bylaws as our bylaws.

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.

As of December 31, 2018, 27,772,600 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by 21 stockholders of record. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, we had outstanding options to purchase 4,414,225 shares of our common stock under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, at a weighted average exercise price of $6.79 per share, 1,751,546 of which were exercisable.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights, or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. The shares to be issued by us in this offering will be, when issued and paid for, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. No shares of preferred stock are outstanding, and we have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of such securities as set forth below under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of an investors’ rights agreement between us and certain holders of our common stock. The investors’ rights agreement

 

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includes demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights. All fees, costs and expenses of underwritten registrations under these agreements will be borne by us and all selling expenses, including underwriting discounts and selling commissions, will be borne by the holders of the shares being registered.

Demand Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the investors’ rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of holders of at least 61% of the securities eligible for registration then outstanding to file a registration statement for at least 33 1/3% of the common stock outstanding (or a lesser percent if the anticipated aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, would exceed $10 million), to file a registration statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to effect the registration of such shares. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.

Short-Form Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are also entitled to short-form registration rights. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of at least 25% of the securities eligible for registration then outstanding to file a Form S-3 with an anticipated aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, of at least $3 million, we will be required to file a registration statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to effect a registration of such shares. We are required to effect only two registrations in any 12-month period pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.

Piggyback Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are entitled to piggyback registration rights. If we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the investors’ rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares which we and the underwriters determine in our sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering. We must pay all expenses, except for underwriting discounts, selling commissions, any applicable stock transfer taxes, and fees and disbursements of security holders’ counsel, incurred in connection with the exercise of piggyback registration rights.

Indemnification

Our investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Expiration of Registration Rights

The demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights granted under the investors’ rights agreement will terminate on the earlier of (i) April 23, 2023, (ii) the closing of a deemed liquidation event, as defined in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or (iii) such time as Rule 144 or a similar exception under the Securities Act is available for the sale of all of a common stockholder’s shares without limitation during a three-month period without registration.

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing another party from acquiring control of us and encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.

Board Composition and Filling Vacancies

Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 75% or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Further, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.

No Written Consent of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This limit may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.

Meetings of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.

Advance Notice Requirements

Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our bylaws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.

Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our bylaws and certificate of incorporation must

 

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be approved by not less than 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than 75% of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our bylaws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws; and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of at least 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

Our certificate of incorporation provides for 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Exclusive Jurisdiction for Certain Actions

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any state law claims for any (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers and employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to the Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. Our bylaws further provide that the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts is the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar exclusive forum provisions in other companies’ bylaws has been challenged in legal proceedings, and on December 19, 2018, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware issued a decision declaring that such federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are ineffective and invalid under Delaware law. On January 17, 2019, the decision was appealed to the Delaware Supreme Court. While the Delaware Supreme Court recently dismissed the appeal on jurisdictional grounds, we expect that the appeal will be re-filed after the Court of Chancery issues a final judgment. Unless and until the Court of Chancery’s decision is reversed by the Delaware Supreme Court or otherwise abrogated, we do not intend to enforce our federal forum selection provision designating the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for Securities Act claims. In the event that the Delaware Supreme Court affirms the Court of Chancery’s decision or otherwise determines that federal forum selection provisions are invalid, our Board of Directors intends to amend promptly our amended and restated bylaws to remove our federal forum selection bylaw provision.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an

 

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“interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

 

   

before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

Exchange Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the trading symbol “SURF.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

This section describes the general terms and provisions of our debt securities that we may issue from time to time. We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer under this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will describe the specific terms of any debt securities offered through that prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The terms of any debt securities we offer under a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may differ from the terms we describe below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the “indentures,” we are also referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue any senior debt securities under the senior indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the senior indenture. We will issue any subordinated debt securities under the subordinated indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete applicable indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title;

 

   

the principal amount being offered, and if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

 

   

any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

   

whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, and, if so, the terms and who the depository will be;

 

   

the maturity date;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

 

   

the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

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whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

   

the place where payments will be payable;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the date, if any, after which, the conditions upon which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option, to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

whether the indenture will restrict our ability or the ability of our subsidiaries, if any at such time, to:

 

   

incur additional indebtedness;

 

   

issue additional securities;

 

   

create liens;

 

   

pay dividends or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or the capital stock of our subsidiaries;

 

   

redeem capital stock;

 

   

place restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets;

 

   

make investments or other restricted payments;

 

   

sell or otherwise dispose of assets;

 

   

enter into sale-leaseback transactions;

 

   

engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;

 

   

issue or sell stock of our subsidiaries; or

 

   

effect a consolidation or merger;

 

   

whether the indenture will require us to maintain any interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios;

 

   

a discussion of certain material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

 

   

information describing any book-entry features;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund purchase or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

the applicability of the provisions in the indenture on discharge;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

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the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any additional events of default or covenants provided with respect to the debt securities, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the debt securities.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third-party). We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third-party) that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indentures will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate. If the debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities of ours or securities of other entities, the person with whom we consolidate or merge or to whom we sell all of our property must make provisions for the conversion of the debt securities into securities that the holders of the debt securities would have received if they had converted the debt securities before the consolidation, merger or sale.

Events of Default Under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal, premium or sinking fund payment, if any, when due and payable at maturity, upon redemption or repurchase or otherwise, and the time for payment has not been extended;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

We will describe in each applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any additional events of default relating to the relevant series of debt securities.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any,

 

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due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense or to be incurred in compliance with instituting the proceeding as trustee; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities, or other defaults that may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

Subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to the following specific matters:

 

   

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture;

 

   

to comply with the provisions described above under “—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

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to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided under “Description of Our Debt Securities—General,” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred to us in the indenture; or

 

   

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series.

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue or as otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the stated maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption or repurchase of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that, subject to the terms of the indenture and any limitation otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

   

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

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Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depository named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus with respect to that series.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series. If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

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We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

Ranking of Debt Securities

The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

The senior debt securities will rank equally in right of payment to all our other senior unsecured debt. The senior indenture does not limit the amount of senior debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

 

   

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the periods during which, and places at which, the warrants are exercisable;

 

   

the manner of exercise;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

 

   

federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they will be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements and unit certificates relating to such units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

   

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

 

   

the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

 

   

the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

 

   

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.

Issuance in Series

We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of a particular series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unit Agreements

We will issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement:

Modification without Consent

We and the applicable unit agent may amend any unit or unit agreement without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity; any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

 

   

to correct or supplement any defective or inconsistent provision; or

 

   

to make any other change that we believe is necessary or desirable and will not adversely affect the interests of the affected holders in any material respect.

We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.

Modification with Consent

We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:

 

   

impair any right of the holder to exercise or enforce any right under a security included in the unit if the terms of that security require the consent of the holder to any changes that would impair the exercise or enforcement of that right; or

 

   

reduce the percentage of outstanding units or any series or class the consent of whose holders is required to amend that series or class, or the applicable unit agreement with respect to that series or class, as described below.

Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:

 

   

If the change affects only the units of a particular series issued under that agreement, the change must be approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding units of that series; or

 

   

If the change affects the units of more than one series issued under that agreement, it must be approved by the holders of a majority of all outstanding units of all series affected by the change, with the units of all the affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.

These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.

In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.

Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act

No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.

Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default

The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with, or

 

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sell our assets substantially as an entirety to, another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.

The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.

Governing Law

The unit agreements and the units will be governed by Delaware law.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue each unit in global—i.e., book-entry—form only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary’s system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities, and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.

If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them.

The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount is not changed.

Holders may exchange or transfer their units at the office of the unit agent. Holders may also replace lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated units at that office. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their units, but they may be required to pay for any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange, and any replacement, will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership. The transfer agent may also require an indemnity before replacing any units.

If we have the right to redeem, accelerate or settle any units before their maturity, and we exercise our right as to less than all those units or other securities, we may block the exchange or transfer of those units during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of exercise and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers of or exchange any unit selected for early settlement, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unsettled portion of any unit being partially settled. We may also block the transfer or exchange of any unit in this manner if the unit includes securities that are or may be selected for early settlement.

Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.

Payments and Notices

In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted by law.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

 

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If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities

 

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may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the third business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s requirement for additional financing to fund future operations as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Surface Oncology, Inc. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.surfaceoncology.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus.

Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of

 

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the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 and filed with the SEC on March 7, 2019;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 13, 2019 and February 4, 2019 to the extent the information in such reports is filed and not furnished;

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement filed with the SEC on April 19, 2019, to the extent the information therein is filed and not furnished; and

 

   

the description of our common stock which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on April 17, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include, without limitation, Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by contacting us, either orally or in writing, at the following:

Surface Oncology, Inc.

50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 714-4096

 

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The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, Dated May 1, 2019

PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

$30,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a Capital on Demand Sales Agreement, or the sales agreement, with JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC, or JonesTrading, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $30,000,000 from time to time through JonesTrading, acting as our agent.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, or the Exchange, under the symbol “SURF.” On April 29, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $4.79 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. JonesTrading is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between JonesTrading and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to JonesTrading for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, JonesTrading will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of JonesTrading will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to JonesTrading with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

 

Our business and an investment in our common stock involve significant risks. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

 

Neither the securities and exchange commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus are truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

LOGO

                    , 2019


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     7  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     8  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     10  

DILUTION

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     12  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     17  

LEGAL MATTERS

     18  

EXPERTS

     18  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     18  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     19  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer any combination of our securities described in our base prospectus included in the shelf registration statement in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $180,000,000. The $30,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus is included in the $180,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement.

This prospectus relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering when making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents we have referred you to under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agent is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

Unless otherwise mentioned or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “Surface,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” or similar references refer to Surface Oncology, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary.

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 7 and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company focused on using our specialized knowledge of the biological pathways critical to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, or the TME, for the development of next-generation cancer therapies. While first-generation immuno-oncology therapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, are a remarkable therapeutic advancement, we believe most patients do not achieve durable clinical benefit primarily because these therapies focus on only one element of the complex and interconnected immunosuppressive TME. We believe there is a significant opportunity to more broadly engage both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in a multi-faceted, coordinated and patient-specific approach, to meaningfully improve cure rates for patients with a variety of cancers. We aim to identify key components within the TME to gain a deep understanding of its biology, leverage this understanding to define the optimal therapeutic targets and the patients most likely to benefit, and develop novel antibody therapeutics with differentiated biologic activity. By utilizing our expertise in immunology, oncology, assay development, antibody selection and characterization, and translational research, we are developing and advancing a broad pipeline of TME-focused programs that we believe are the next generation of immuno-oncology therapies. Our programs demonstrate our multi-faceted approach by targeting several critical components of the immunosuppressive TME, including metabolites, cytokines and macrophages.

NZV930 (formerly SRF373) and SRF617 are antibodies inhibiting cluster of differentiation, or CD, 73 and CD39, respectively, and illustrate how our specialized knowledge of TME biology can be leveraged across programs. CD73 and CD39 are both critical enzymes involved in the production of extracellular adenosine, a key metabolite with strong immunosuppressive properties within the TME. Elevated adenosine levels in the TME are associated with a poor prognosis in patients with certain types of cancer. NZV930 and SRF617 each aim to reduce the production of immunosuppressive adenosine but target different points of the adenosine pathway. In addition to reducing the production of adenosine, we believe SRF617 will also stimulate anti-tumor immunity because of its ability to maintain levels of extracellular adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, a proinflammatory molecule and key driver of the maturation and activation of immune cells. In June 2018, a Phase 1 trial of NZV930 was initiated by our partner, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., or Novartis, and we expect to file an investigational new drug application, or IND, for SRF617 in the fourth quarter of 2019.

SRF388 is an antibody targeting interleukin 27, or IL-27, an immunosuppressive cytokine, or protein secreted by cells, in the TME that is overexpressed in certain cancers. IL-27 is a cytokine secreted by macrophages and antigen presenting cells that plays an important physiologic role in suppressing the immune system, as evidenced by its ability to resolve tissue inflammation. In addition, one of the subunits of IL-27, EBI3, is highly expressed during pregnancy and its expression is correlated with maternal-fetal tolerance. Due to its immunosuppressive nature, there is a rationale for inhibiting IL-27 to treat cancer, as this approach will influence the activity of multiple types of immune cells that are necessary to recognize and attack a tumor. We expect to file an IND for SRF388 in the fourth quarter of 2019.



 

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SRF231 is an antibody targeting CD47, which is a protein expressed on many cells, but often overexpressed on tumor cells. By targeting CD47, we believe we can promote macrophage activation to attack such tumors. We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of SRF231 in February 2018. In December 2018, we announced the deprioritization of SRF231 as a result of toxicities seen during the dose escalation portion of the ongoing Phase 1 trial as well as the evolving competitive landscape. We are continuing dose exploration in the Phase 1 trial and expect to provide additional data regarding SRF231 in the second half of 2019.

We also have several earlier stage programs that target other critical components of the TME, including regulatory T cells and natural killer, or NK, cells. We expect that the unique insights generated in any one of our product programs will accelerate the development of the other programs in a synergistic fashion due to the interconnections between these TME pathways.

In 2016, we entered into a strategic collaboration agreement, or the Collaboration Agreement, with Novartis to develop next-generation cancer therapies. Importantly, this collaboration enables us to leverage the expertise and resources of Novartis to accelerate the development of our collaboration programs. To date, we have received upfront and milestone payments from Novartis totaling $150 million. We have granted Novartis a worldwide exclusive license to develop and commercialize NZV930. Under the Collaboration Agreement, we are currently entitled to potential milestones in excess of $500 million, as well as tiered royalties on annual net sales by Novartis ranging from high single-digit to mid-teens percentages upon successful commercialization of NZV930. Novartis has one option remaining eligible for purchase and potential exercise. The maximum aggregate amount of potential option purchase, option exercise, and milestone payments associated with this last program is $220 million.

We have assembled an outstanding team, including our world-class scientific advisory board. Our scientific founders and members of our management team have extensive experience in drug discovery and development and are leaders in the immuno-oncology field. Members of our leadership team have helped develop a number of commercialized therapies, including cancer treatments such as Avastin, Copiktra and Velcade. Our scientific advisory board is co-chaired by leading immuno-oncology researchers Alexander Y. Rudensky, Ph.D., a world leader in regulatory T cell biology, and Arlene H. Sharpe, M.D., Ph.D., who led pioneering work related to the ligands for PD-1, including the co-discovery of PD-L2, and has defined functions of the PD-1 pathway as well as other costimulatory and immune checkpoint molecules. Collectively, we believe our team, industry-leading capabilities and collaboration with Novartis, position us to build the leading TME company focused on developing next-generation immunotherapies for the tens of millions of cancer patients worldwide.

Our Strategy

Our mission is to create next-generation immuno-oncology therapies to help those affected by cancer. We strive to fulfill our mission by:

Avoiding incrementalism:

 

   

We live in an era of unparalleled scientific discovery where progress is moving faster than ever. Both the competitive landscape and our understanding of cancer biology are constantly evolving. To develop therapies that meaningfully benefit patients, we will be judicious in how we invest our time and resources. We identify and interrogate critical pathways and targets in the TME, allowing us to select and advance therapeutic candidates with differentiated biological activity. We prioritize novel programs with the potential to meaningfully help patients suffering with cancer.

Pioneering the translation of TME biology into cancer therapeutics:

 

   

The TME is a complex interplay of immunosuppressive biological pathways, molecules, cells and other components surrounding the tumor. To successfully advance a new wave of cancer immunotherapies, it



 

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is essential that we have a deep understanding of TME biology. Our team, together with our scientific advisory board, has unique expertise and capabilities within TME biology. For example:

 

   

In our work along the adenosine axis with our NZV930 (CD73) and SRF617 (CD39) programs, we were able to leverage our understanding of this biological pathway to identify two therapeutic candidates which offer differentiated profiles.

 

   

For our SRF388 (IL-27) program, we utilized our accumulated knowledge regarding IL-27 biology to identify what we believe to be the optimal therapeutic target within the pathway and to identify the relevant tumor types where IL-27 appears to play an important role.

 

   

We believe these product candidates have the potential to be first-in-class and/or best-in-class.

Emphasizing collaboration:

 

   

We believe in collaboration at all levels, both internally and externally. As we continue to build our own clinical and, in the future, commercial capabilities, we will seek to work with leaders from academia, biotech and large pharma to enable our mission. We do this not only to expand our learning and expedite our programs, but to maximize the value created for patients and our shareholders.

Our Pipeline

We believe next-generation immuno-oncology therapies need to encompass a multi-faceted, coordinated and patient-specific approach to treating cancer in order to achieve meaningful increases in patient cure rates. We have developed a pipeline of multiple therapeutic programs to address the complexity of the TME, as shown in the table below.

 

 

LOGO



 

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Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2014. Our principal executive office is located at 50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 714-4096. Our website address is www.surfaceoncology.com. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In particular, in this prospectus, we have provided only two years of audited financial statements and have not included all of the executive compensation-related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier to occur of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following April 23, 2023, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenues of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” under the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, which means the market value of our equity securities that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of delayed adoption of new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same requirements to adopt new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $30,000,000.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

Up to 34,035,648 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 6,263,048 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $4.79 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on April 29, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering

 

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 17 of this prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 10 of this prospectus.

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus.

 

Nasdaq Global Market Symbol

“SURF”

The number of shares of common stock shown above to be outstanding after this offering is based on 27,772,600 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018, and excludes as of that date:

 

   

4,414,225 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2018, at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.79 per share;

 

   

1,412,159 shares of common stock that are available for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, as of December 31, 2018; and

 

   

256,818 shares of our common stock available for future issuance as of December 31, 2018 under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as updated by our annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus with respect to this offering filed by us with the SEC, before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Additional Risks Related to This Offering

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 6,263,048 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $4.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on April 29, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $30,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $0.89 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to this offering, and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options would result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing shareholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

Our management might apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may impair the value of your investment.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of net proceeds from this offering, if any. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include, but are not limited to, research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, if any, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds, if any, may be used for corporate purposes that do not increase our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contain forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;

 

   

the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including timing of Investigational New Drug application and Biological Licensing Application filings for, and final U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of our current product candidates and any other future product candidates;

 

   

the timing, scope or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals;

 

   

our ability to use our understanding of the tumor microenvironment to identify product candidates and to match immunotherapies to select patient subsets;

 

   

our ability to develop and advance our current product candidates and programs into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;

 

   

our ability to develop combination therapies, whether on our own or in collaboration with Novartis and other third parties;

 

   

our manufacturing, commercialization and marketing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

the pricing and reimbursement of our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop, if approved;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our current product candidates and other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

the potential benefits of and our ability to maintain our collaboration with Novartis, and establish or maintain future collaborations or strategic relationships or obtain additional funding;

 

   

our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;

 

   

our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our current product candidates and other product

 

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candidates we may develop, the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;

 

   

our competitive position, and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the proceeds from our initial public offering and the concurrent private placement;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing; and

 

   

the impact of laws and regulations.

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $30,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with JonesTrading as a source of financing.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include, but are not limited to, research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes.

 

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DILUTION

Our net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 was approximately $102.8 million, or $3.70 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of $30,000,000 of shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $4.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Exchange on April 29, 2019, and after deducting estimated offering commissions and offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $132.9 million, or $3.90 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.20 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $0.89 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at the assumed public offering price. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 4.79  

Net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

   $ 3.70     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

   $ 0.20     

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to this offering

      $ 3.90  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering

      $ 0.89  

The above discussion and table are based on 27,772,600 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018, and exclude:

 

   

4,414,225 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2018, at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.79 per share;

 

   

1,412,159 shares of common stock that are available for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, as of December 31, 2018; and

 

   

256,818 shares of our common stock available for future issuance as of December 31, 2018 under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

To the extent that outstanding options as of December 31, 2018 have been or may be exercised or other shares issued, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following descriptions are summaries of the material terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. We refer in this section to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation as our certificate of incorporation, and we refer to our amended and restated bylaws as our bylaws.

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.

As of December 31, 2018, 27,772,600 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by 21 stockholders of record. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, we had outstanding options to purchase 4,414,225 shares of our common stock under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, at a weighted average exercise price of $6.79 per share, 1,751,546 of which were exercisable.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights, or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. The shares to be issued by us in this offering will be, when issued and paid for, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. No shares of preferred stock are outstanding, and we have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of such securities as set forth below under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of an investors’ rights agreement between us and certain holders of our common stock. The investors’ rights agreement

 

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includes demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights. All fees, costs and expenses of underwritten registrations under these agreements will be borne by us and all selling expenses, including underwriting discounts and selling commissions, will be borne by the holders of the shares being registered.

Demand Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the investors’ rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of holders of at least 61% of the securities eligible for registration then outstanding to file a registration statement for at least 33 1/3% of the common stock outstanding (or a lesser percent if the anticipated aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, would exceed $10 million), to file a registration statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to effect the registration of such shares. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.

Short-Form Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are also entitled to short-form registration rights. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the written request of at least 25% of the securities eligible for registration then outstanding to file a Form S-3 with an anticipated aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, of at least $3 million, we will be required to file a registration statement and use commercially reasonable efforts to effect a registration of such shares. We are required to effect only two registrations in any 12-month period pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.

Piggyback Registration Rights

The holders of 8,102,270 shares of our common stock are entitled to piggyback registration rights. If we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the investors’ rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares which we and the underwriters determine in our sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering. We must pay all expenses, except for underwriting discounts, selling commissions, any applicable stock transfer taxes, and fees and disbursements of security holders’ counsel, incurred in connection with the exercise of piggyback registration rights.

Indemnification

Our investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Expiration of Registration Rights

The demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights granted under the investors’ rights agreement will terminate on the earlier of (i) April 23, 2023, (ii) the closing of a deemed liquidation event, as defined in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or (iii) such time as Rule 144 or a similar exception under the Securities Act is available for the sale of all of a common stockholder’s shares without limitation during a three-month period without registration.

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing another party from acquiring control of us and encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.

Board Composition and Filling Vacancies

Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 75% or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Further, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.

No Written Consent of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This limit may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.

Meetings of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.

Advance Notice Requirements

Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our bylaws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.

Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our bylaws and certificate of incorporation must

 

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be approved by not less than 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than 75% of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our bylaws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws; and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of at least 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

Our certificate of incorporation provides for 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Exclusive Jurisdiction for Certain Actions

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any state law claims for any (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers and employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to the Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. Our bylaws further provide that the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts is the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers. The enforceability of similar exclusive forum provisions in other companies’ bylaws has been challenged in legal proceedings, and on December 19, 2018, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware issued a decision declaring that such federal forum selection provisions purporting to require claims under the Securities Act be brought in federal court are ineffective and invalid under Delaware law. On January 17, 2019, the decision was appealed to the Delaware Supreme Court. While the Delaware Supreme Court recently dismissed the appeal on jurisdictional grounds, we expect that the appeal will be re-filed after the Court of Chancery issues a final judgment. Unless and until the Court of Chancery’s decision is reversed by the Delaware Supreme Court or otherwise abrogated, we do not intend to enforce our federal forum selection provision designating the District of Massachusetts as the exclusive forum for Securities Act claims. In the event that the Delaware Supreme Court affirms the Court of Chancery’s decision or otherwise determines that federal forum selection provisions are invalid, our Board of Directors intends to amend promptly our amended and restated bylaws to remove our federal forum selection bylaw provision.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an

 

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“interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

 

   

before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder. Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

Exchange Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the trading symbol “SURF.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Capital on DemandTM Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with JonesTrading, under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $30,000,000 from time to time through JonesTrading acting as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act.

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock, we will notify JonesTrading of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed JonesTrading, unless JonesTrading declines to accept the terms of the notice, JonesTrading has agreed, subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. We may instruct JonesTrading not to sell shares of common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We or JonesTrading may suspend the offering of shares of common stock being made through JonesTrading under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party.

We will pay JonesTrading commissions for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. JonesTrading will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales price of the shares sold. JonesTrading may effect sales to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from JonesTrading and/or purchasers of shares of common stock for whom they may act as agents or to whom they may sell as principal. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse JonesTrading for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $45,000, as provided in the sales agreement. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to JonesTrading under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $300,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and JonesTrading in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A. or by such other means as we and JonesTrading may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, JonesTrading will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of JonesTrading will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to JonesTrading against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the termination of such sales agreement as permitted therein.

JonesTrading and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates for which services they may in the future receive customary fees.

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. We are filing a copy of the sales agreement as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s requirement for additional financing to fund future operations as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Surface Oncology, Inc. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.surfaceoncology.com. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus.

Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 and filed with the SEC on March 7, 2019;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 13, 2019 and February 4, 2019 to the extent the information in such reports is filed and not furnished;

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement filed with the SEC on April 19, 2019, to the extent the information therein is filed and not furnished; and

 

   

the description of our common stock which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on April 17, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include, without limitation, Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by contacting us, either orally or in writing, at the following:

Surface Oncology, Inc.

50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 714-4096

 

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$30,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

LOGO

 

 

                    , 2019

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the offering of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee and FINRA filing fee.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 21,816  

FINRA filing fee

     27,500  

Accounting fees and expenses

              (1) 

Legal fees and expenses

              (1) 

Transfer agent fees and expenses

              (1) 

Trustee fees and expenses

              (1) 

Printing and miscellaneous expenses

              (1) 

Total

   $           (1) 

 

(1)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, authorizes a corporation to indemnify its directors and officers against liabilities arising out of actions, suits and proceedings to which they are made or threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that they have served or are currently serving as a director or officer to a corporation. The indemnity may cover expenses (including attorneys’ fees) judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the director or officer in connection with any such action, suit or proceeding if the director or officer acted in good faith and in a manner the director or officer reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the director or officer’s conduct was unlawful. Section 145 permits corporations to pay expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by directors and officers in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified by the corporation as authorized in Section 145. In addition, Section 145 provides that a corporation has the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of its directors and officers against any liability asserted against them and incurred by them in their capacity as a director or officer, or arising out of their status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the director or officer against such liability under Section 145.

We have adopted provisions in both our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended. Consequently, a director is not personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages or breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

   

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

any unlawful payments related to dividends or unlawful stock purchases, redemptions or other distributions; or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

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These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as an injunction or rescission.

In addition, our bylaws provide that:

 

   

we will indemnify our directors, officers and, in the discretion of our board of directors, certain employees to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended; and

 

   

we will advance reasonable expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and, in the discretion of our board of directors, to our officers and certain employees, in connection with legal proceedings relating to their service for or on behalf of us, subject to limited exceptions.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. These agreements provide that we will indemnify each of our directors, certain of our executive officers and, at times, their affiliates to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. We will advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees (but excluding judgments, fines and settlement amounts), to each indemnified director, executive officer or affiliate in connection with any proceeding in which indemnification is available and we will indemnify our directors and officers for any action or proceeding arising out of that person’s services as a director or officer brought on behalf of us or in furtherance of our rights. Additionally, certain of our directors or officers may have certain rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses or insurance provided by their affiliates or other third parties, which indemnification relates to and might apply to the same proceedings arising out of such director’s or officer’s services as a director referenced herein. Nonetheless, we have agreed in the indemnification agreements that our obligations to those same directors or officers are primary and any obligation of such affiliates or other third parties to advance expenses or to provide indemnification for the expenses or liabilities incurred by those directors are secondary.

We also maintain general liability insurance which covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

Exhibit

Number

  

Description

  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  1.2    Capital on DemandTM Sales Agreement, dated as of May 1, 2019, by and between the Registrant and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC
  3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 23, 2018 (File No. 001-38459) and incorporated herein by reference)
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 23, 2018 (File No. 001-38459) and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.1    Specimen Common Stock Certificate (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on March 23, 2018 (File No. 333-223877) and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.2    Form of indenture for subordinated debt securities and the related form of subordinated debt security
  4.3    Form of indenture for senior debt securities and the related form of senior debt security
  4.4*    Form of Certificate of Designations
  4.5*    Form of Warrant Agreement
  4.6*    Form of Unit Certificate
  4.7*    Form of Unit Agreement

 

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Exhibit

Number

  

Description

  4.8*    Form of Preferred Stock Certificate
  4.9    Investors’ Rights Agreement among the Registrant and certain of its stockholders, dated November 6, 2014, as amended on January 9, 2016 (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on March 23, 2018 (File No. 333-223877) and incorporated herein by reference).
  5.1    Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP
  5.2    Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP relating to the sales agreement prospectus
23.1    Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
23.2    Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1 hereto)
23.3    Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2 hereto)
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature pages to this registration statement)
25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

 

*

To be filed, if necessary, by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this registration statement, including a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Item 17. Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

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(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offing of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

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(8)    To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Cambridge, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on May 1, 2019.

 

SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC.
By:  

/s/ J. Jeffrey Goater

 

J. Jeffrey Goater

Chief Executive Officer

Power of Attorney and Signatures

Each individual whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints each of J. Jeffrey Goater and Daniel S. Lynch as such person’s true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement (or any Registration Statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission granting unto each said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that any said attorney-in-fact and agent, or any substitute or substitutes of any of them, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement and Power of Attorney has been signed by the following person in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

Signature    Title   Date

/s/ J. Jeffrey Goater

J. Jeffrey Goater

   Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer and Duly Authorized Officer)   May 1, 2019

/s/ Jessica Fees

Jessica Fees

   Senior Vice President, Finance and Business Operations (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)   May 1, 2019

/s/ Daniel S. Lynch

Daniel S. Lynch

   Chairman of the Board   May 1, 2019

/s/ David S. Grayzel, M.D.

David S. Grayzel, M.D.

   Director   May 1, 2019

/s/ Geoffrey McDonough, M.D.

Geoffrey McDonough, M.D.

   Director   May 1, 2019

/s/ Armen B. Shanafelt, Ph.D.

Armen B. Shanafelt, Ph.D.

   Director   May 1, 2019

/s/ Elliott Sigal, M.D., Ph.D.

Elliott Sigal, M.D., Ph.D.

   Director   May 1, 2019

/s/ Laurie D. Stelzer

Laurie D. Stelzer

   Director   May 1, 2019

 

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EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

Surface Oncology, Inc.

Common Stock

($0.0001 par value per share)

Capital on Demand Sales Agreement

JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC

757 Third Avenue 23rd Floor    

New York, NY 10017

May 1, 2019

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Surface Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with JONESTRADING INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES LLC (the “Agent”), as follows:

1.      Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of common stock of the Company, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”) having an aggregate offering price of up to $30,000,000 (the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue Common Stock.

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Exchange Act Regulations”). The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Sales Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement. The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the Sales Prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented from time to time by any prospectus supplement, relating to the Placement Shares. The Company may file one or more


additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable, with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act Regulations, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The Sales Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Sales Prospectus have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations, together with any then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (defined below), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein.

For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2.      Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective unless and until (i) the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, which declination must occur within two (2) Business Days of the receipt of the Placement Notice; (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder has been sold; (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice; (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those of the earlier dated Placement Notice; or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the

 

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Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3.      Sale of Placement Shares by Agent. Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Global Market (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, the Agent may also sell Placement Shares by any other method permitted by law, including but not limited to in negotiated transactions, subject to the prior written consent of the Company.

4.      Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each party agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.

5.      Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.

(a)      Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in such Placement Notice, and

 

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otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Agent and the Company.

(b)      Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Agent, after deduction for (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(c)      Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of the Agent, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Agent (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

(d)      Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (i) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount, (ii) the amount available for offer and sale under the currently effective Registration Statement and (iii) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized

 

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from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

(e)      Prohibited Transactions. While a Placement Notice is in effect, neither the Agent nor any of its subsidiaries shall, for its own account, engage in (i) any short sale of any security of the Company, as defined in Regulation SHO, or (ii) any market making bidding, stabilization or other trading activity with regard to the Common Stock or related derivative securities, in each case, if such activity would be prohibited under Regulation M or other anti-manipulation rules under the Securities Act Regulations. For the avoidance of doubt, this restriction shall not apply to transactions by or on behalf of any customer of the Agent or transactions by the Agent to facilitate any such transactions by or on behalf of any customer of the Agent.

6.      Representations and Warranties of the Company. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with Agent that, unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies otherwise, as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below):

(a)      Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act. As of the date hereof, the Company meets the applicable requirements of General Instruction I.B.6. The Registration Statement has been or will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. The Sales Prospectus will name Agent as underwriter, acting as agent, in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act Regulations and comply in all material respects with said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to Agent and its counsel. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus to which Agent has consented. The Common Stock is currently registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “SURF”. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from the Exchange to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements. The Company has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements.

 

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(b)      No Misstatement or Omission. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, and the Prospectus, and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of such Prospectus or amendment or supplement, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, did not, and will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.

(c)      Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the Incorporated Documents, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.

(d)      Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

(e)      No Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) sustained any material loss or material interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree or (ii) entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case, in each case otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and, since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there has not been (x) any change in the capital stock (other than as a result of (i) the exercise, if any, of stock options or the

 

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award, if any, of stock options or restricted stock in the ordinary course of business pursuant to the Company’s equity plans that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (ii) the issuance, if any, of stock upon conversion of Company securities as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) or long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (y) any Material Adverse Effect (as defined below); as used in this Agreement, “Material Adverse Effect” shall mean a material adverse change or effect, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change or effect, in or affecting (i) the business, properties, general affairs, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, prospects or results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, or (ii) the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement, including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares, or to consummate the transactions contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(f)      Title to Real and Personal Property. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries own any real property in fee simple. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company and its subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company and its subsidiaries.

(g)      Organization. Each of the Company and each of its subsidiaries has been (i) duly organized and is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, with power and authority (corporate and other) to own its properties and conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and (ii) duly qualified as a foreign corporation for the transaction of business and is in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which it owns or leases properties or conducts any business so as to require such qualification, except, in the case of this clause (ii), where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and each subsidiary of the Company has been listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K; and none of the subsidiaries of the Company is a “significant subsidiary” (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act Regulations).

(h)      Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and all of the issued shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and conform to the description of the Common Stock contained in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; and all of the issued shares of capital stock of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and (except, in the case of any foreign subsidiary, for directors’ qualifying shares) are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, equities or claims, except for such liens or encumbrances described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

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(i)      Authorization of Placement Shares. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and non-assessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.

(j)      No Violation or Default; No Consents Required. The issue and sale of the Placement Shares and the compliance by the Company with this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement and the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will not conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, (A) any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, except, in the case of this clause (A) for such defaults, breaches, or violations that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, (B) the certificate of incorporation or by-laws (or other applicable organizational document) of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or (C) any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties; and no consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any such court or governmental agency or body is required for the issue and sale of the Placement Shares or the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have been obtained under the Securities Act, the approval by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) of the terms and arrangements and such consents, approvals, authorizations, registrations or qualifications as may be required under state securities or Blue Sky laws in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares by the Agent.

(k)      No Material Defaults. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its certificate of incorporation or by-laws (or other applicable organizational document), (ii) in violation of any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties, or (iii) in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties may be bound, except, in the case of the foregoing clauses (ii) and (iii), for such defaults as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(l)      Description of Capital Stock. The statements set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus under the caption “Description of Capital Stock”, insofar as they purport to constitute a summary of the terms of the Stock, insofar as they purport to describe the provisions of the laws and documents referred to therein, are accurate, complete and fair in all material respects.

 

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(m)      No Litigation. Other than as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal or governmental proceedings pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is the subject which, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries (or such officer or director), would individually or in the aggregate reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental authorities or others.

(n)      Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure it will not be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

(o)      Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act Regulations at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act Regulations in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

(p)      Independent Public Accountant. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, are independent public accountants as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

(q)      Internal Controls. The Company maintains a system of internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act ) that (i) complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act, (ii) has been designed by the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and (iii) is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(r)      Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company and its subsidiaries is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer by others within those entities; and such disclosure controls and procedures are effective.

 

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(s)      Authorization; Enforceability. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles.

(t)      No Improper Practices. None of the Company or any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) directly or indirectly made, offered, promised or authorized any unlawful payment, contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful benefit or expense; (ii) made, offered, promised or authorized any direct or indirect unlawful payment; or (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law.

(u)      Operations. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with the requirements of applicable anti-money laundering laws, including, but not limited to, the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and the anti-money laundering laws of the various jurisdictions in which the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(v)      Sanctions. None of the Company or any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Government, including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”), or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person,” the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, the United Nations Security Council, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding, is the subject or the target of Sanctions or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions.

(w)      Financial Information. The consolidated financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the

 

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Company and its subsidiaries at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company and its subsidiaries for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly in all material respects in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The selected consolidated financial data and the summary consolidated financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included therein. Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus under the Securities Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(x)      Emerging Growth Company. From the time of initial confidential submission of the Company’s initial registration statement with the Commission (or, if earlier, the first date on which a Section 5(d) Communication was made) through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

(y)      No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act Regulations (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of Common Stock, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise.

(z)      Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with current or former employees or officers of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of the Company’s or any of its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers or contractors. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any collective bargaining agreement.

(aa)      Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption

 

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insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks, that in the Company’s reasonable judgement, are reasonable and is ordinary and customary for comparable companies in the same or similar businesses; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

(bb)      Compliance with Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries and, its and their respective directors, officers and employees, and, to the Company’s knowledge, its and their respective agents, affiliates and representatives, are, and at all times have been, in compliance with all Health Care Laws (defined herein), including, but not limited to, the rules and regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and has not engaged in any activities which are, as applicable, cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other local, state or federal healthcare program, other than for such instances of non-compliance which would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” shall mean the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286, 287, 1347 and 1349, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq.) (“HIPAA”), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.), Medicare statute (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), Medicaid statute (Title XIX of the Social Security Act), Medicaid Drug Rebate Program (42 U.S.C. § 1396r-8), Medicare average sales price reporting (42 U.S.C. § 1395w-3a), the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. § 256b), the VA Federal Supply Schedule (38 U.S.C § 8126) or similar rules and regulations of any other federal, state or local governmental or regulatory body or authority. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to or has any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreement, deferred prosecution agreement, monitoring agreement, consent decree, settlement order, plan of correction or similar agreement imposed by any governmental authority. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notification, correspondence or any other written communication, including, without limitation, any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any similar regulatory authority, or any notification of any pending or threatened claim, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action, from any governmental authority of non-compliance by, or liability of, the Company or its subsidiaries under any Health Care Laws.

(cc)      Clinical Studies. The pre-clinical studies and clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols submitted to the FDA or any foreign governmental body exercising comparable authority, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards, and all applicable laws and

 

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regulations; the descriptions of the pre-clinical studies and clinical trials conducted by or, to the Company’s knowledge, on behalf of the Company, and the results thereof, contained in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Prospectus and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects; the Company is not aware of any other pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, the results of which reasonably call into question the results described in the Registration Statement, the Pricing Prospectus and the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any notices or correspondence from the FDA, any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority or any Institutional Review Board requiring the termination, suspension, material modification or clinical hold of any pre-clinical studies or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company.

(dd)      No Suspensions or Debarment. Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries nor, any of its or their respective officers, employees or directors, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its or their respective agents or clinical investigators, has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the Company’s knowledge, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion, or convicted of any crime or engaged in any conduct that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment under 21 U.S.C. § 335a.

(ee)      Intellectual Property. The Company owns or has valid, binding and enforceable licenses or other rights to practice and use all patents and patent applications, copyrights, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, trade names, service names and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) and all other technology and intellectual property rights (i) described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as owned by or licensed to the Company, or (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, necessary for, or used in the conduct, or the proposed conduct, of the business of the Company in the manner described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, the “Company Intellectual Property”), and, to the Company’s knowledge, the conduct of its and its subsidiaries’ respective business (including the development and commercialization of the product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) has not and will not infringe or misappropriate any intellectual property rights of others, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate have a Material Adverse Effect; other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no rights of third parties to any of the intellectual property owned by the Company, and such intellectual property is owned by the Company free and clear of all material liens, security interests, or encumbrances; to the knowledge of the Company, the patents, trademarks and copyrights held or licensed by the Company included within the Company Intellectual Property are valid, enforceable and subsisting; to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any of the Company Intellectual Property; other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries is obligated to pay a material royalty, grant a license, or provide other material consideration to any third party in connection with the Company Intellectual Property, (ii) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, alleging that the Company or its subsidiaries is infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating any rights of others with respect to any of the Company’s product candidates, processes or intellectual property, and the Company is

 

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unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (iii) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, challenging the validity, enforceability, scope, registration, ownership or use of any of the Company’s Intellectual Property, (iv) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (v) the Company has not received written notice of any claim of infringement, misappropriation or conflict with any asserted rights of others with respect to any of the Company’s products, proposed products, processes or Company Intellectual Property, (vi) to the knowledge of the Company, the development, manufacture, sale, and any currently proposed use of any of the products, proposed products or processes of the Company referred to in the Pricing Prospectus and the Prospectus, in the current or proposed conduct of the business of the Company, do not currently, and will not upon commercialization, to the knowledge of the Company, infringe any right or valid patent claim of any third party, (vii) to the knowledge of the Company, no third party has any ownership right in or to any Company Intellectual Property in any field of use that is exclusively licensed to the Company, other than any licensor to the Company of such Company Intellectual Property, (viii) to the knowledge of the Company, no employee, consultant or independent contractor of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in or has ever been in violation in any material respect of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer or independent contractor where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment or independent contractor’s engagement with the Company or actions undertaken while employed or engaged with the Company, (ix) the Company has taken reasonable measures to protect its confidential information and trade secrets and to maintain and safeguard the Company’s Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements, and to the Company’s knowledge, no employee of the Company is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement, or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company, and (x) the Company has complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which the Company’s Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect.

(ff)      Patents. All patents and patent applications owned by or licensed to the Company or under which the Company has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and maintained; to the knowledge of the Company, there are no material defects in any of the patents or patent applications disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries; to the knowledge of the Company, the parties prosecuting such applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the USPTO in connection with such applications; and the Company is not aware of any facts required to be disclosed to the USPTO that were not disclosed to the USPTO and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or could form the basis of a finding of invalidity with respect to any patents that have issued with respect to such applications.

 

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(gg)      Statistical and Market-Related Data. Any statistical, industry-related and market-related data included in the Registration Statement us and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate and, to the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources, if required.

(hh)      Licenses and Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities having jurisdiction over the Company and its subsidiaries that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received written notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, certificate, permit or authorization, except where such revocation or modification would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(ii)      Taxes. All United States federal income tax returns of the Company and its subsidiaries required by law to be filed have been filed and all taxes shown as due on such returns or that otherwise have been assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid, except assessments against which appeals have been or will be promptly taken and as to which adequate reserves have been provided. The Company and its Subsidiaries have filed all other tax returns that are required to have been filed by them pursuant to applicable foreign, state, local or other law except insofar as the failure to file such returns would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and has paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company and its Subsidiaries, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided. No tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which has (nor does the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries have any written notice or knowledge of any tax deficiency which could reasonably be expected to be determined adversely to the Company or its Subsidiaries and which would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have) a Material Adverse Effect.

(jj)      Certain Market Activities. The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action that is designed to or that has constituted or might reasonably be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Common Stock.

(kk)      Finder’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or the Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(ll)    Related Parties. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers,

 

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stockholders, customers or suppliers of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents and in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(mm)      Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any related entities (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

(nn)      No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(oo)      Environmental Laws. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company (i) is in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, decisions and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) has received and is in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) has not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(pp)      Sarbanes-Oxley. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the applicable rules and regulations promulgated thereunder in all material respects. Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made all certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission. For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(qq)      Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company, and/or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structural finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off Balance Sheet Transaction”) that could reasonably be expected to affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

(rr)      Underwriter Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at-the-market” or continuous equity transaction.

(ss)      ERISA. To the knowledge of the Company, each material employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), that is maintained, administered or contributed to by the Company or any of its affiliates for employees or former employees of the Company has been maintained in material compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred which would result in a material liability to the Company with respect to any such plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; and for each such plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no “accumulated funding deficiency” as defined in Section 412 of the Code has been incurred, whether or not waived, and the fair market value of the assets of each such plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such plan determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions.

(tt)      Forward Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith. The Forward Looking Statements incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (i) are within the coverage of the safe harbor for forward looking statements set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act, Rule 175(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or Rule 3b-6 under the Exchange Act Regulations, as applicable, (ii) were made by the Company with a reasonable basis and in good faith and reflect the Company’s good faith commercially reasonable best estimate of the matters described therein, and (iii) have been prepared in accordance with Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act Regulations.

(uu)      Agent Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent each Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent.

(vv)      Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

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(ww)      No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 24 below), did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.

(xx)      Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agent as to the matters set forth therein.

7.      Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Agent that:

(a)      Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act Regulations or similar rule), (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected in writing thereto within two (2) Business Days (provided, however,

 

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that (A) the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide the Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agent an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Agent and does not relate to the transaction herein provided, and (C) the only remedy Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide the Agent with such copy or the filing of such amendment or supplement despite the Agent’s objection shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act Regulations or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

(b)      Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

(c)      Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act Regulations or similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance.

 

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(d)      Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Agent reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

(e)      Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f)      Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 of the Securities Act Regulations, which requirement may be satisfied by publicly filing the required information on EDGAR.

(g)      Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(h)      Notice of Other Sales. Without prior written notice to Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the third (3rd) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); provided, however, that such notice will not be required in connection with (i) the issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of

 

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Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets; (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to the Agent in advance; (iv) the issuance or sale of any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding; or (v) the issuance or sale of shares of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, investors, strategic partners or potential strategic partners, financial institutions or other lenders in connection with debt arrangements, and otherwise conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Common Stock hereby and not for capital raising purposes. For avoidance of doubt, nothing herein shall be construed as restricting the Company’s ability, or requiring the Company to provide notice to the Agent, to file a registration statement with the Commission.

(i)        Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

(j)        Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or its representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

(k)        Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company shall disclose, in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K to be filed by the Company with the Commission from time to time, the number of the Placement Shares sold through the Agent under this Agreement, and the net proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

 

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(l)      Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) each time the Company:

(i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

(iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act;

(Each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date.”)

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l). The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or the Agent sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(m)      Legal Opinion. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Agent, in form and substance satisfactory to Agent and its counsel; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Agent no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if

 

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it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

(n)      Comfort Letter. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent more than once per calendar year. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance satisfactory to the Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB and (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings.

(o)      Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Placement Shares, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act Regulations.

(p)      Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure it will not be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered investment companies.

(q)      No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as agent hereunder, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act Regulations), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

(r)      Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to

 

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file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

(s)      Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all effective and applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

8.      Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation, filing, including any fees required by the Commission, and printing of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits) as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary; (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares; (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent; (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company; (v) the reasonable out-of-pocket expenses of Agent, including fees and disbursements of counsel to the Agent; (vi) the printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of any Permitted Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (defined below) and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary; (vii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of the blue sky survey and any Canadian “wrapper” and any supplements thereto, in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary; (viii) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the American Depositary Shares; (ix) the fees and expenses incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares, including associated fees and expenses of counsel to the Agent; and (x) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in no event shall the amount of expenses reimbursed to Agent hereunder exceed $50,000 in connection with the execution of this Agreement and up to $7,500 per year in connection with the review and preparation of the deliverables set forth in Sections 7(l), (m) and (n).

9.      Conditions to Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a)      Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agent and not yet sold by the Agent and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

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(b)      No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c)      No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d)      Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e)      Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

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(f)      Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(g)      Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).

(h)      No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

(i)      Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish the Agent with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent shall reasonably request.

(j)      Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act Regulations to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(k)      Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been approved for listing quotation on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or the Company shall have filed an application for listing quotation of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice and the Exchange shall not have provided any objections thereto.

(l)      FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

(m)      Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 12(a).

10.      Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)      Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its directors, officers, partners, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or is controlled by or is under common control with the Agent, as follows:

(i)      against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to

 

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be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

(ii)      against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any governmental agency or body, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 10(c) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Agent, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

(iii)      against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any governmental agency or body, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission, to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto).

(b)      Agent Indemnification. Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or is controlled by or under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 10(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent and furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein.

(c)      Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 10 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 10, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 10 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 10 unless, and only to the

 

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extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 10 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

(d)      Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 10 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the

 

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Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total net proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 10(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 10(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 10(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 10(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 10(d), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 10(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agent, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 10(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 10(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 10(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 10(c) hereof.

11.      Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 10 of this Agreement and all representations and

 

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warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

12.      Termination.

(a)      The Agent may terminate this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (i) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any Material Adverse Effect, or any development or event that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (iii) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (iv) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (v) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (vi) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 10 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 11 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 17 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 18 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 12(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 13 (Notices).

(b)       The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c)       The Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice’ as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

30


(d)      This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b) or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 shall remain in full force and effect.

(e)      Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

(f)      Subject to the additional limitations set forth in Section 8, in the event of termination of this Agreement by the Company prior to the sale of any Placement Shares, the Agent shall be entitled only to reimbursement of its out-of-pocket expenses actually incurred.

13.      Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC

900 Island Park Drive, Suite 160

Daniel Island, SC 29492

Attn: Burke Cook

Email: [*****]

and

Cooley LLP

55 Hudson Yard

New York, NY 10001

Attn: Daniel I. Goldberg

Facsimile: [*****]

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

Surface Oncology, Inc.

50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor

Cambridge, MA

Attn: Liisa Nogelo

Facsimile: [*****]

 

31


with a copy to:

Goodwin Procter LLP

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, NY 10018

Attn: Seo Salimi

Facsimile: (212) 656-1546

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid).

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 13 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

14.      Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 10 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate thereof without obtaining the Company’s consent.

15.      Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

16.      Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent. In the event that any one or more of

 

32


the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

17.      GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

18.      CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.

19.      Use of Information. The Agent may not use any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to advise any party with respect to transactions not expressly approved by the Company.

20.      Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile transmission.

 

33


21.      Effect of Headings. The section and Exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

22.      Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Agent, and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

23.      Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a)      the Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

(b)      it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c)      the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

(d)      it is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agent has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

(e)      it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agent shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company, other than in respect of the Agent’s obligations under this Agreement and to keep information provided by the Company to the Agent and the Agent’s counsel confidential to the extent not otherwise publicly-available.

 

34


24.      Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date, (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, and (iii) each Settlement Date.

Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act Regulations.

Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act Regulations.

Trading Day” means any day on which shares of Common Stock are purchased and sold on the Exchange.

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

 

35


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

Very truly yours,

 

SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC.
By:  

/s/ J. Jeffrey Goater

  Name: J. Jeffrey Goater
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
JONESTRADING INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES LLC
By:  

/s/ Trent McNair

  Name: Trent McNair
  Title: Chief Financial Officer


SCHEDULE 1

 

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

 

 

  From:   Surface Oncology, Inc.
  To:   JONESTRADING INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES LLC
    Attention:                                 
  Subject:   Placement Notice
  Gentlemen:  

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the At the Market Offering Sales Agreement between, Surface Oncology, Inc. (the “Company”) and JONESTRADING INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES LLC (“Agent”, dated May 1, 2019, the Company hereby requests that the Agent sell up to                      of the Company’s Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share, at a minimum market price of $         per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].


SCHEDULE 2

 

 

Compensation

 

 

The Company shall pay to the Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount of up to 3% of the gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.


SCHEDULE 3

 

 

Notice Parties

 

 

The Company

Jeff Goater, CEO - [*****]

Jessica Fees, SVP Finance & Business Ops - [*****]

Liisa Nogelo, General Counsel - [*****]

The Agent

 

Moe Cohen, Managing Director   [*****]
Bryan Turley, Managing Director   [*****]
John D’Agostini, Director   [*****]
Ryan Gerety, Vice President   [*****]
Burke Cook, General Counsel   [*****]


EXHIBIT 7(l)

Form of Representation Date Certificate

This Officer’s Certificate (this “Certificate”) is executed and delivered in connection with Section 7(l) of the At the Market Offering Sales Agreement (the “Agreement”), dated May 1, 2019, and entered into between Surface Oncology, Inc. (the “Company”) and JONESTRADING INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES LLC. All capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Agreement

The undersigned, a duly appointed and authorized officer of the Company, having made all necessary inquiries to establish the accuracy of the statements below and having been authorized by the Company to execute this certificate, hereby certifies as follows:

1.      As of the date of this Certificate, (i) the Registration Statement does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading and (ii) neither the Registration Statement nor the Prospectus contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (iii) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading.

2.      Each of the representations and warranties of the Company contained in the Agreement were, when originally made, and are, as of the date of this Certificate, true and correct in all material respects.

3.      Each of the covenants required to be performed by the Company in the Agreement on or prior to the date of the Agreement, this Representation Date, and each such other date as set forth in the Agreement, has been duly, timely and fully performed in all material respects and each condition required to be complied with by the Company on or prior to the date of the Agreement, this Representation Date, and each such other date as set forth in the Agreement or in the Waivers has been duly, timely and fully complied with in all material respects.

4.      Subsequent to the date of the most recent financial statements in the Prospectus, there has been no Material Adverse Effect.

5.      No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any part thereof has been issued, and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or are pending or threatened by any securities or other governmental authority (including, without limitation, the Commission).

6.      No order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the qualification or registration of the Placement Shares under the securities or Blue Sky laws of any jurisdiction are in effect and no proceeding for such purpose is pending before, or threatened, to the Company’s knowledge or in writing by, any securities or other governmental authority (including, without limitation, the Commission).


The undersigned has executed this Officer’s Certificate as of the date first written above.

 

Surface Oncology, Inc.
By:  

 

Name:  
Title:  
EX-4.2

Exhibit 4.2

SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC.

Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of [], 201[]

 

 

Subordinated Debt Securities


Table of Contents

 

         Page  

ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS

     5  

Section 1.01

  Definitions of Terms.      5  

ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     9  

Section 2.01

  Designation and Terms of Securities.      9  

Section 2.02

  Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.      12  

Section 2.03

  Denominations: Provisions for Payment.      12  

Section 2.04

  Execution and Authentications.      14  

Section 2.05

  Registration of Transfer and Exchange.      14  

Section 2.06

  Temporary Securities.      16  

Section 2.07

  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.      16  

Section 2.08

  Cancellation.      17  

Section 2.09

  Benefits of Indenture.      17  

Section 2.10

  Authenticating Agent.      17  

Section 2.11

  Global Securities.      18  

ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

     19  

Section 3.01

  Redemption.      19  

Section 3.02

  Notice of Redemption.      19  

Section 3.03

  Payment Upon Redemption.      20  

Section 3.04

  Sinking Fund.      21  

Section 3.05

  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.      21  

Section 3.06

  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.      21  

ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS

     22  

Section 4.01

  Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.      22  

Section 4.02

  Maintenance of Office or Agency.      22  

Section 4.03

  Paying Agents.      22  

Section 4.04

  Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.      24  

Section 4.05

  Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.      24  

ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

     24  

Section 5.01

  Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.      24  

Section 5.02

  Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.      24  


         Page  

Section 5.03

  Reports by the Company.      25  

Section 5.04

  Reports by the Trustee.      25  

ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     26  

Section 6.01

  Events of Default.      26  

Section 6.02

  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.      27  

Section 6.03

  Application of Moneys Collected.      29  

Section 6.04

  Limitation on Suits.      29  

Section 6.05

  Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.      30  

Section 6.06

  Control by Securityholders.      30  

Section 6.07

  Undertaking to Pay Costs.      31  

ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     31  

Section 7.01

  Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.      31  

Section 7.02

  Certain Rights of Trustee.      33  

Section 7.03

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.      34  

Section 7.04

  May Hold Securities.      35  

Section 7.05

  Moneys Held in Trust.      35  

Section 7.06

  Compensation and Reimbursement.      35  

Section 7.07

  Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.      36  

Section 7.08

  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.      36  

Section 7.09

  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.      36  

Section 7.10

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.      37  

Section 7.11

  Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.      38  

Section 7.12

  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.      39  

Section 7.13

  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.      39  

Section 7.14

  Notice of Default      39  

ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     40  

Section 8.01

  Evidence of Action by Securityholders.      40  

Section 8.02

  Proof of Execution by Securityholders.      40  

Section 8.03

  Who May be Deemed Owners.      41  

Section 8.04

  Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.      41  

Section 8.05

  Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.      41  

ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     42  

Section 9.01

  Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.      42  

Section 9.02

  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.      43  

 

3


         Page  

Section 9.03

  Effect of Supplemental Indentures.      43  

Section 9.04

  Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.      43  

Section 9.05

  Execution of Supplemental Indentures.      44  

ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     44  

Section 10.01

  Company May Consolidate, Etc.      44  

Section 10.02

  Successor Entity Substituted.      45  

ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

     45  

Section 11.01

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.      45  

Section 11.02

  Discharge of Obligations.      46  

Section 11.03

  Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.      46  

Section 11.04

  Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.      47  

Section 11.05

  Repayment to Company.      47  

ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     47  

Section 12.01

  No Recourse.      47  

ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     48  

Section 13.01

  Effect on Successors and Assigns.      48  

Section 13.02

  Actions by Successor.      48  

Section 13.03

  Surrender of Company Powers.      48  

Section 13.04

  Notices.      48  

Section 13.05

  Governing Law.      48  

Section 13.06

  Treatment of Securities as Debt.      49  

Section 13.07

  Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.      49  

Section 13.08

  Payments on Business Days.      49  

Section 13.09

  Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.      49  

Section 13.10

  Counterparts.      49  

Section 13.11

  Separability.      50  

Section 13.12

  Compliance Certificates.      50  

ARTICLE 14 SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

     50  

Section 14.01

  Subordination Terms.      50  

(1) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

4


INDENTURE

INDENTURE, dated as of [●], 201[●], among SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of subordinated debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01    Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.


Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means Surface Oncology, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [●].

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depositary Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

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Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for

 

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cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer of the Trustee assigned by the Trustee to administer its corporate trust matters with respect to this Indenture (which, for the avoidance of doubt, includes without limitation any supplemental indenture hereto).

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person:

(1)    any corporation or company a majority of whose capital stock with voting power, under ordinary circumstances, to elect directors is, at the date of determination, directly or indirectly, owned by such Person (a “subsidiary”), by one or more subsidiaries of such Person or by such Person and one or more subsidiaries of such Person;

(2)    a partnership in which such Person or a subsidiary of such Person is, at the date of determination, a general partner of such partnership; or

(3)    any partnership, limited liability company or other Person in which such Person, a subsidiary of such Person or such Person and one or more subsidiaries of such

 

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Person, directly or indirectly, at the date of determination, have (x) at least a majority ownership interest or (y) the power to elect or appoint or direct the election or appointment of the managing partner or member of such Person or, if applicable, a majority of the directors or other governing body of such Person.

Trustee” means [●], and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended and in effect from time to time.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01    Designation and Terms of Securities.

(1)    The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(a)    the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(b)    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(c)    the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

(d)    if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(e)    the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

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(f)    the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the manner of determination of such record dates;

(g)    the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

(h)    the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, converted or exchanged, in whole or in part;

(i)    the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption, or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(j)    the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

(k)    if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

(l)    any and all other terms (including terms, to the extent applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities) with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(m)    whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

(n)    whether the Securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities of the Company or any other Person and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, and the applicable conversion or exchange period;

 

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(o)    if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(p)    any additional or alternative events of default;

(q)    additional or alternative covenants (which may include, among other restrictions, restrictions on the Company’s ability or the ability of the Company’s Subsidiaries to: incur additional indebtedness; issue additional securities; create liens; pay dividends or make distributions in respect of the capital stock of the Company or the Company’s Subsidiaries; redeem capital stock; place restrictions on the Company’s Subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets; make investments or other restricted payments; sell or otherwise dispose of assets; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates; issue or sell stock of the Company’s Subsidiaries; or effect a consolidation or merger) or financial covenants (which may include, among other financial covenants, financial covenants that require the Company and its Subsidiaries to maintain specified interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios) provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

(r)    the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such Securities shall be payable (if other than the currency of the United States of America), which unless otherwise specified shall be the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public or private debts;

(s)    if the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on such Securities is to be payable, at the election of the Company or any Holder thereof, in a coin or currency other than that in which such Securities are stated to be payable, then the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

(t)    whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(u)    the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

(v)    additional or alternative provisions, if any, related to defeasance and discharge of the offered Securities;

(w)    the applicability of any guarantees;

(x)    any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series;

 

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(y)    any other terms of the series; and

(z)    the subordination terms of the Securities of the series.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02    Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03    Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(1)(j). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(1)(p), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

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Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1)    The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Company shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee of such special record date and in such notice, instruct the Trustee to send such notice to holders, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent electronically or mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

(2)    The Company may elect to make or cause to be made payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either (i) the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or (ii) the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

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Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04    Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, if requested, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 2.05    Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(1)    Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

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(2)    The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(3)    Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(2) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(4)    The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

 

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Section 2.06    Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07    Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08    Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09    Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article Fourteen, the holders of any indebtedness of the Company to which the Securities of any series are subordinated) any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article Fourteen, the holders of any indebtedness of the Company to which the Securities of any series are subordinated).

Section 2.10    Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent

 

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shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11    Global Securities.

(1)    If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(2)    Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

(3)    If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in

 

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exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(3) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

Section 3.01    Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Section 3.02    Notice of Redemption.

(1)    In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, electronically or by first class postage prepaid mail, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days, except that redemption notices may be sent more than 90 days prior to the redemption date if the notice is issued in connection with a defeasance of the Securities or a satisfaction and discharge, before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

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Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption, if applicable, any record date with respect to such redemption, and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

(2)    If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

Section 3.03    Payment Upon Redemption.

(1)    If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but

 

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if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(2)    Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04    Sinking Fund.

The provisions of Section 3.04, Section 3.05 and Section 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

Section 3.05    Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

Section 3.06    Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of

 

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and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01    Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

Section 4.02    Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities; provided, however, the Trustee shall not be considered an agent of the Company for service of process.

Section 4.03    Paying Agents.

(1)    If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

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(a)    that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

(b)    that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

(c)    that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

(d)    that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

(2)    If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

(3)    Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

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Section 4.04    Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

Section 4.05    Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other Person unless the provisions of Article Ten hereof are complied with.

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 5.01    Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to be furnished such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

Section 5.02    Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

(1)    The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

(2)    The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(3)    Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Section 5.03    Reports by the Company.

(1)    The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or Interactive Data Electronic Applications (IDEA), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company; provided that an electronic link to such filing, together with an electronic notice of such filing have been sent to the Trustee. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the SEC within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

(2)    Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate).

Section 5.04    Reports by the Trustee.

(1)    If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, commencing the calendar year after the year in which the first Securities are issued hereunder, shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(2)    The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(3)    A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

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ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 6.01    Events of Default.

(1)    Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

(a)    the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

(b)    the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

(c)    the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

(d)    the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(e)    a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

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(2)    In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

(3)    At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

(4)    In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

Section 6.02    Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

(1)    The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the

 

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Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

(2)    If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

(3)    In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

(4)    All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights,

 

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either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.03    Application of Moneys Collected.

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of all indebtedness of the Company to which such series of Securities is subordinated to the extent required by Section 7.06 and any subordination terms of the series specified as contemplated by Article Fourteen;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 6.04    Limitation on Suits.

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture or any Security to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, any Security or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

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Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 6.05    Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

(1)    Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

(2)    No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

Section 6.06    Control by Securityholders.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine

 

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that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee in accordance with Section 6.01(3)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.07    Undertaking to Pay Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 7.01    Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

(1)    The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

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(2)    No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(a)    prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

(A)    the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(B)    in the absence of willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

(b)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(c)    the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

(d)    none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

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Section 7.02    Certain Rights of Trustee.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

(1)    The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(2)    Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

(3)    The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(4)    The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

(5)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(6)    The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

(7)    The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

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(8)    In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

(9)    In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

(10)    The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that (a) the party providing such written instructions, subsequent to such transmission of written instructions, shall provide the originally executed instructions or directions to the Trustee in a timely manner, and (b) such originally executed instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties.

In addition, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

Section 7.03    Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

(1)    The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

(2)    The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

(3)    The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any

 

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moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

Section 7.04    May Hold Securities.

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

Section 7.05    Moneys Held in Trust.

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

Section 7.06    Compensation and Reimbursement.

(1)    The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Company and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable and documented expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable and documented fees and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or willful misconduct and except as the Company and Trustee may from time to time agree in writing. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any documented loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.

(2)    The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute indebtedness of the Company to which the Securities are subordinated. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

(3)    To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs

 

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expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(1)(d) or Section 6.01(1)(e), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

Section 7.07    Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

Section 7.08    Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section  310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 7.09    Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

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Section 7.10    Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

(1)    The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by electronic mail, or by first class postage prepaid mail, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

(2)    In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

(a)    the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

(b)    the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

(c)    the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation; then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

(3)    The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

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(4)    Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

(5)    Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

Section 7.11    Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

(1)    In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

(2)    In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any

 

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successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

(3)    Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

(4)    No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

(5)    Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

Section 7.12    Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

Section 7.13    Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

Section 7.14    Notice of Default

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall send to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible

 

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Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

ARTICLE 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 8.01    Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

Section 8.02    Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

(1)    The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

(2)    The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

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The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

Section 8.03    Who May be Deemed Owners.

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

Section 8.04    Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

Section 8.05    Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

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ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 9.01    Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

(1)    to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;

(2)    to comply with Article Ten;

(3)    to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(4)    to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

(5)    to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

(6)    to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

(7)    to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

(8)    to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or

(9)    to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

42


The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

Section 9.02    Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 9.03    Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

Section 9.04    Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any

 

43


matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

Section 9.05    Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by the terms of this Article and that all conditions precedent to the execution of the supplemental indenture have been complied with; provided, however, that such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall (or shall direct the Trustee to) transmit by electronic mail, or by first class postage prepaid mail, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to mail, or cause the mailing of, such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE 10

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

Section 10.01    Company May Consolidate, Etc.

Nothing contained in this Indenture shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other corporation (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors) authorized to acquire and operate the same; provided, however, (a) the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction), sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this

 

44


Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property and (b) in the event that the Securities of any series then Outstanding are convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock or other securities of the Company, such entity shall, by such supplemental indenture, make provision so that the Securityholders of Securities of that series shall thereafter be entitled to receive upon conversion or exchange of such Securities the number of securities or property to which a holder of the number of shares of common stock or other securities of the Company deliverable upon conversion or exchange of those Securities would have been entitled had such conversion or exchange occurred immediately prior to such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition.

Section 10.02    Successor Entity Substituted.

(1)    In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

(2)    In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

(3)    Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

ARTICLE 11

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

Section 11.01    Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated and not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms

 

45


to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Section 2.03, Section 2.05, Section 2.07, Section 4.01, Section 4.02, Section 4.03 and Section 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Section 7.06 and Section 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute such instruments reasonably requested by the Company acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

Section 11.02    Discharge of Obligations.

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4,03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid.

Thereafter, Section 7.06 and Section 11.05 shall survive.

Section 11.03    Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 11.01 or Section 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

 

46


Section 11.04    Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

Section 11.05    Repayment to Company.

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, or such other shorter period set forth in applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or upon the Company’s request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as a general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

ARTICLE 12

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

Section 12.01    No Recourse.

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

47


ARTICLE 13

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 13.01    Effect on Successors and Assigns.

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 13.02    Actions by Successor.

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

Section 13.03    Surrender of Company Powers.

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

Section 13.04    Notices.

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by any standard form of telecommunication or by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: Surface Oncology, Inc., 50 Hampshire Street, 8th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, where reference herein is made to notice of any event (including notice of redemption) to a Securityholder of Global Securities, whether by mail or otherwise, such notice shall be sufficiently given when delivered to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of the Depositary.

Section 13.05    Governing Law.

This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

48


Section 13.06    Treatment of Securities as Debt.

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

Section 13.07    Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.

(1)    Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

(2)    Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include (i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is reasonably necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 13.08    Payments on Business Days.

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

Section 13.09    Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

Section 13.10    Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The

 

49


exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 13.11    Separability.

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

Section 13.12    Compliance Certificates.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.12, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such an Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Event of Default and its status.

ARTICLE 14

SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

Section 14.01    Subordination Terms.

The payment by the Company of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on any series of Securities issued hereunder shall be subordinated to the extent set forth in an indenture supplemental hereto relating to such series.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC.

By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

[TRUSTEE], as Trustee

By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

 

51


TRUST INDENTURE ACT CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as  amended

   Section of Indenture

310(a)

   Section 7.09

310(b)

   Section 7.08
   Section 7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   Section 7.13

311(b)

   Section 7.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   Section 5.01
   Section 5.02(1)

312(b)

   Section 5.02(3)

312(c)

   Section 5.02(3)

313(a)

   Section 5.04(1)

313(b)

   Section 5.04(2)

313(c)

   Section 5.04(1)
   Section 5.04(2)

313(d)

   Section 5.04(3)

314(a)

   Section 5.03
   Section 13.12

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   Section 13.07(1)

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   Section 13.07(2)

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   Section 7.01(1)
   Section 7.01(2)

315(b)

   Section 7.14

315(c)

   Section 7.01

315(d)

   Section 7.01(2)

315(e)

   Section 6.07

316(a)

   Section 6.06
   Section 8.04

316(b)

   Section 6.04

316(c)

   Section 8.01

317(a)

   Section 6.02

317(b)

   Section 4.03

318(a)

   Section 13.09

 

(1)

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

52

EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC.

Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of [], 201[]

 

 

Senior Debt Securities


Table of Contents

 

         Page  

ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS

     5  

Section 1.01

  Definitions of Terms.      5  

ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     9  

Section 2.01

  Designation and Terms of Securities.      9  

Section 2.02

  Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.      12  

Section 2.03

  Denominations: Provisions for Payment.      12  

Section 2.04

  Execution and Authentications.      14  

Section 2.05

  Registration of Transfer and Exchange.      14  

Section 2.06

  Temporary Securities.      16  

Section 2.07

  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.      16  

Section 2.08

  Cancellation.      17  

Section 2.09

  Benefits of Indenture.      17  

Section 2.10

  Authenticating Agent.      17  

Section 2.11

  Global Securities.      18  

ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

     19  

Section 3.01

  Redemption.      19  

Section 3.02

  Notice of Redemption.      19  

Section 3.03

  Payment Upon Redemption.      20  

Section 3.04

  Sinking Fund.      21  

Section 3.05

  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.      21  

Section 3.06

  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.      21  

ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS

     22  

Section 4.01

  Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.      22  

Section 4.02

  Maintenance of Office or Agency.      22  

Section 4.03

  Paying Agents.      22  

Section 4.04

  Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.      23  

Section 4.05

  Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.      23  

ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

     24  

Section 5.01

  Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.      24  

Section 5.02

  Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.      24  


         Page  

Section 5.03

  Reports by the Company.      24  

Section 5.04

  Reports by the Trustee.      25  

ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     25  

Section 6.01

  Events of Default.      25  

Section 6.02

  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.      27  

Section 6.03

  Application of Moneys Collected.      28  

Section 6.04

  Limitation on Suits.      29  

Section 6.05

  Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.      30  

Section 6.06

  Control by Securityholders.      30  

Section 6.07

  Undertaking to Pay Costs.      31  

ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     31  

Section 7.01

  Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.      31  

Section 7.02

  Certain Rights of Trustee.      32  

Section 7.03

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.      34  

Section 7.04

  May Hold Securities.      34  

Section 7.05

  Moneys Held in Trust.      34  

Section 7.06

  Compensation and Reimbursement.      34  

Section 7.07

  Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.      35  

Section 7.08

  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.      36  

Section 7.09

  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.      36  

Section 7.10

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.      36  

Section 7.11

  Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.      37  

Section 7.12

  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.      39  

Section 7.13

  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.      39  

Section 7.14

  Notice of Default      39  

ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     39  

Section 8.01

  Evidence of Action by Securityholders.      39  

Section 8.02

  Proof of Execution by Securityholders.      40  

Section 8.03

  Who May be Deemed Owners.      40  

Section 8.04

  Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.      40  

Section 8.05

  Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.      41  

ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     41  

Section 9.01

  Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.      41  

Section 9.02

  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.      42  

 

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         Page  

Section 9.03

  Effect of Supplemental Indentures.      43  

Section 9.04

  Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.      43  

Section 9.05

  Execution of Supplemental Indentures.      43  

ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     44  

Section 10.01

  Company May Consolidate, Etc.      44  

Section 10.02

  Successor Entity Substituted.      44  

ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

     45  

Section 11.01

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.      45  

Section 11.02

  Discharge of Obligations.      45  

Section 11.03

  Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.      46  

Section 11.04

  Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.      46  

Section 11.05

  Repayment to Company.      46  

ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     47  

Section 12.01

  No Recourse.      47  

ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     47  

Section 13.01

  Effect on Successors and Assigns.      47  

Section 13.02

  Actions by Successor.      47  

Section 13.03

  Surrender of Company Powers.      47  

Section 13.04

  Notices.      48  

Section 13.05

  Governing Law.      48  

Section 13.06

  Treatment of Securities as Debt.      48  

Section 13.07

  Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.      48  

Section 13.08

  Payments on Business Days.      49  

Section 13.09

  Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.      49  

Section 13.10

  Counterparts.      49  

Section 13.11

  Separability.      49  

Section 13.12

  Compliance Certificates.      49  

(1) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

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INDENTURE

INDENTURE, dated as of [●], 201[●], among SURFACE ONCOLOGY, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01    Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.


Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means Surface Oncology, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [●].

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

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Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for

 

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cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer of the Trustee assigned by the Trustee to administer its corporate trust matters with respect to this Indenture (which, for the avoidance of doubt, includes without limitation any supplemental indenture hereto).

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person:

(1)    any corporation or company a majority of whose capital stock with voting power, under ordinary circumstances, to elect directors is, at the date of determination, directly or indirectly, owned by such Person (a “subsidiary”), by one or more subsidiaries of such Person or by such Person and one or more subsidiaries of such Person;

(2)    a partnership in which such Person or a subsidiary of such Person is, at the date of determination, a general partner of such partnership; or

(3)    any partnership, limited liability company or other Person in which such Person, a subsidiary of such Person or such Person and one or more subsidiaries of such Person, directly or

 

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indirectly, at the date of determination, have (x) at least a majority ownership interest or (y) the power to elect or appoint or direct the election or appointment of the managing partner or member of such Person or, if applicable, a majority of the directors or other governing body of such Person.

Trustee” means [●], and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended and in effect from time to time.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01    Designation and Terms of Securities.

(1)    The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(a)    the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(b)    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(c)    the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

(d)    if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(e)    the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

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(f)    the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the manner of determination of such record dates;

(g)    the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

(h)    the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, converted or exchanged, in whole or in part;

(i)    the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption, or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(j)    the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

(k)    if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;